Even deer adore the sweet acorns of the Chinkapin. Its glossy, coarsely-toothed leaves are yellow-green and small compared to most oaks. Its light gray bark and branch structure provide a nice silhouette in winter. Width: 40 to 70 feet. The range extends from Maine to Nebraska and south to North Carolina and Texas. It is a component of the forest cover type White Oak-Black Oak-Northern Red Oak (Society of American Foresters Type 52) and the Post Oak-Blackjack Oak (Type 40) (2). Plant groupings in large spaces or parks. Although a beautiful tree, Chinkapin Oak has not been extensively studied due to its small numbers. The chinkapin oak is a large white oak tree that grows to between 45 and 110 ft. (20 – 33 m). Chinquapin Oak (Quercus muehlenbergii), a Wisconsin Special Concern plant, is found in oak savannas, edges of woods, and banks along water. Often maturing between 50 to 75 feet tall. Leaves: Alternate, simple, lobed; lobes with rounded tips, Seed Dispersal Dates: September - October. Chinkapin oak is native to the Midwest, where it is often found as a specimen planting or as a grouping of tree for parks and large areas. Quercus muehlenbergii, commonly called Chinkapin (or Chinquapin) oak, is a medium sized deciduous oak of the white oak group that typically grows 40-60’ (less frequently to 80’) tall with an open globular crown.It is native to central and eastern North America where it is typically found on dry upland sites often in rocky, alkaline soils. In lack of evidence that Engelmann's use of the umlaut was an unintended error, and hence correctable, the muehlenbergii spelling is considered correct, although the more appropriate orthographic variant Quercus muhlenbergii is often seen. Chinkapin Oak (Quercus muehlenbergii) Zones 3-9. Ames, IA 50011, Iowa State University | PoliciesState & National Extension Partners. However, unlike the pointed teeth on the leaves of the chinkapin oak, chestnut oak leaves generally have rounded teeth. … Herbarium specimens should (but too rarely do) include typical mature foliage, winter buds, and fully mature acorns, as well as notes on bark and stature of the plant. Quercus muehlenbergii, the chinkapin or chinquapin oak, is a deciduous species of tree in the white oak group (Quercus sect. Twigs are greenish tinged with red or purplish red, turning orange brown to gray brown later in the year. Insects that bore into the bole and seriously degrade the products cut from infested trees include the carpenterworm (Prionoyxstus robiniae), little carpenterworm (P. macmurtrei), white oak borer (Goes tigrinus), Columbian timber beetle (Corthylus columbianus), oak timberworm (Arrhenodes minutus), and twolined chestnut borer (Agrilus bilineatus). ), black cherry (Prunus serotina), cucumbertree (Magnolia acuminata), white ash (Fraxinus americana), American basswood (Tilia americana), black walnut (Juglans nigra), butternut (J. cinerea), and yellow-poplar (Liriodendron tulipifera). Chinkapin Oak TN native. It specializes on bedrock with high pH, such as marble; as such, it is quite rare in New England, and is listed as threatened in Massachusetts. Height: 40-50′ Spread: 40-50′ Habit/Form: Rounded Growth Rate: Slow Zone: 5-7 Custom Search Chinquapin Oak – Quercus muhlenbergii Chinquapin oak is easily grown in rich, loamy, well-drained soils in full sun. The Chinquapin Oak Tree is a medium sized tree in the white oak group, and the bark is gray-brown and scaly and quite distinct in the landscape. The bark of mature trees is thin, shaggy or flakey and brown to grayish in color and resembles that of white oak (Quercus alba). The bark is thin, light brown, and scaly. The bark is quite thin, breaking into plate-like scales similar to white oak. However, some overlap in leaf characteristics can occur among these species, and they may hybridize in areas where their ranges overlap. Chinkapin oak is a medium sized tree (1 to 2 feet in diameter and 40 to 70 feet tall). Call us at 1 315 4971058. It’s one of the few oaks that tolerates alkaline […] ... Chinkapin oak is named because of the resemblance of the leaves to the Allegheny chinquapin (Castanea pumila), a relative of American chestnut (C. dentata). Since its recognition as a different species from the similar-appearing chestnut oak (Quercus prinus), Q. muehlenbergii has generally been regarded as a distinct species; no subspecies or varieties are currently recognized within it, although a few infraspecific variants had been accepted in the past. Under the modern rules of botanical nomenclature, umlauts are transliterated, with ü becoming ue, hence Engelmann's Quercus mühlenbergii is now presented as Quercus muehlenbergii. Although leaves of American beech (Fagus grandifolia are similar to Chinquapin oak, the former has smooth bark while the latter has shallowly fissured and flaky bark. Oak leaves are extremely variable (in size, shape, and pubescence) from one part of the same tree to another, and from one tree to another of the same species. Early pioneers used its straight wood to make thousands of miles of fences in the states of Ohio, Kentucky and Indiana. Because the tree is relatively rare, its wood is normally sold as white oak. Height: Varies with species. Growth Rate: slow ... Bark is thin like the white oak. About half of the acorn is enclosed in a thin cup and is chestnut brown to nearly black. Mice, squirrels, voles, other small mammals, and white-tailed deer consume the acorns of chinquapin oak [ 13, 52, 65 ]. The two species have contrasting kinds of bark: Chinkapin oak has a gray, flaky bark very similar to that of white oak (Q. alba) but with a more yellow-brown cast to it (hence the occasional name yellow oak for this species), while chestnut oak has dark, solid, deeply ridged bark. Strong tree, good for wildlife food and windbreaks. feed on the acorns. This tree is a reliable grower, even in the poorest of sites. Grows well in rocky or good soil. It is regarded as a climax species on dry, drought prone soils, especially those of limestone origin. Oak, Dwarf chinkapin (Quercus prinoides) Oak, red (Quercus rubra) This large oak grows in moist, well-drained, forested sites. It can be found in dry rocky or sandy soils along roadsides, hillside pastures, and barren slopes. Chinkapin oak (Quercus muehlenbergii) is a native oak which is often not recognized as an oak when first encountered. The two species have contrasting kinds of bark: chinkapin oak has a gray, flaky bark very similar to that of white oak (Q. alba) but with a more yellow-brown cast to it (hence the occasional name yellow oak for this species), while chestnut oak has dark, solid, deeply ridged bark. The acorns are 1/2 to 3/4 inch long, without a stalk; the caps are bowl shaped covering 1/3 to 1/2 of the acorn. The roots of some seedlings may be trimmed for ease of planting and packaging purposes. Like all oaks, it does have a cluster of buds at the end of … Beaver feed on the bark and twigs , and porcupines consume the bark . Bark: Light gray, breaking into short, narrow flakes on the main trunk and limbs, deeply furrowed on older trunks. In publishing the name Quercus mühlenbergii, German-American botanist George Engelmann mistakenly used an umlaut in spelling Muhlenberg's name, even though Pennsylvania-born Muhlenberg himself did not use an umlaut in his name. Chinkapin Oak Fruit - Photo by Paul Wray, Iowa State University, Chinkapin Oak Male Flowers - Photo by Paul Wray, Iowa State University, Chinkapin Oak Twig - Photo by Paul Wray, Iowa State University, Agriculture and Natural Resources Extension, Iowa State University Extension and Outreach, ISU Extension and Outreach [2][6], Chinkapin oak is also sometimes confused with the related chestnut oak (Quercus montana), which it closely resembles. It ranges from Vermont to Minnesota, south to the Florida panhandle, and west to New Mexico in the United States. Quercus muehlenbergii, commonly called Chinkapin (or Chinquapin) oak, is a medium sized deciduous oak of the white oak group that typically grows 40-60’ (less frequently to 80’) tall with an open globular crown. Chinquapin oak leaves are glossy and dark green, and the leaves can grow fairly large, which gives the tree a thick, lush look. Chinkapin oak is a member of the white oak group with chestnut-type leaves. The acorn weevils (Curculio spp. March 11, 2016 Quercus muehlenbergii . Mice, squirrels, voles, other small mammals, and white-tailed deer consume the acorns of chinquapin oak [13,52,65]. [citation needed], Severe wildfire kills chinkapin oak saplings and small pole-size trees, but these often resprout. [8], The low-growing, cloning Q. prinoides (dwarf chinkapin oak) is similar to Q. muehlenbergii and has been confused with it in the past, but is now generally accepted as a distinct species. Autumn brings beautiful, red leaf color. Chinkapin today is planted as a shade tree and is valuable for its lumber, which has many uses, ranging from fuel to fence posts to cabinetry and furniture. The two species generally occur in different habitats: chinquapin oak is typically found on calcareous soils and rocky slopes, while dwarf chinkapin oak is usually found on acidic substrates, primarily sand or sandy soils, and also dry shales. Quercus muehlenbergii and over 1000 other quality seeds for sale. Chinkapin Oak, and their acorns are larger in size (1" long or more). About half of the acorn is enclosed in a thin cup and is chestnut brown to nearly black. Copyright © 2020 Iowa State University of Science and Technology. Chinkapin oak prefers well drained soils along bottomlands or on limestone ridges bordering streams where it grows best. In the Missouri Ozarks a redcedar-chinkapin oak association has been described. The acorns of chinquapin oak are a high quality, dependable food source [30,52]. The staminate flowers are borne in catkins that develop from the leaf axils of the previous year, and the pistillate flowers develop from the axils of the current year's leaves. Chinkapin oak is usually a tree, but occasionally shrubby, while dwarf chinkapin oak is a low-growing, clone-forming shrub. Facts About Chinkapin Trees Chinkapins are native to this country, growing naturally in the wild from New England to the Mexican border. Quercus muehlenbergii (often misspelled as muhlenbergii) is native to eastern and central North America. [2], Chinkapin oak is generally found on well-drained upland soils derived from limestone or where limestone outcrops occur. The acorns of chinquapin oak are a high quality, dependable food source [ 30, 52 ]. Diseases that Can Affect Dwarf Chinkapin Oak Habitat: Grows on rocky slopes and exposed bluffs. Chinkapin Oak are found on limestone outcrops and are tolerant of alkaline soils. The chinkapin oak is also commonly referred to as a yellow chestnut oak, rock oak or yellow oak. As part of the group of white oaks, they bear very pale, white bark. Although native, chinkapin oak is sporadic within its range and seldom is a dominant species in a woodland. The fruit, an acorn or nut, is borne singly or in pairs, matures in 1 year, and ripens in September or October. The chinquapin oak is a larval host for the Gray Hairstreak butterfly and the flowers attract hummingbirds in April and May. Their trunks can grow to 3 feet in diameter. [citation needed]. The small, sweet acorns are possibly the most preferred by wildlife. Interesting Facts: Chinkapin oak is named because of the resemblance of the leaves to the Allegheny chinquapin (Castanea pumila), a relative of American chestnut (C. dentata). Chinkapin oaks perform well in alkaline soils. It is a deciduous tree reaching 30 m tall exceptionally up to 50 m, with a rounded crown and thin, scaly or flaky bark on the trunk. 339 Science II Indeed, the nuts contained inside of the thin shell are among the sweetest of any oak, with an excellent taste even when eaten raw, providing an excellent source of food for both wildlife and people. The chinkapin oak is a large white oak tree that grows to between 45 and 110 ft. (20 – 33 m). The wood can be sold as White Oak, but the tree is not found in large enough quantities for silvicultural research. Chinkapin oaks are found on dry, limestone outcrops in the wild and perform well in alkaline soils. Mature trees of Rock Chestnut Oak have deeply furrowed bark, which is very unlike the thin flaky bark of Chinkapin Oak. It is commonly found on dry bluffs, ridge tops, and rocky, south facing slopes. It does not have lobed leaves like most other oaks; its leaves are toothed like a chestnut. It specializes on bedrock with high pH, such as marble; as such, it is quite rare in New England, and is listed as threatened in Massachusetts. Growing a diversity of native plants is important to sustain local and migratory wildlife. This oak was originally native to most states east of mid-Kansas excluding the east coast, southern coast, far north and Florida. The acorns turn chestnut brown in the fall, The leaves have sharp teeth but no bristles, as a member of the, This page was last edited on 8 May 2020, at 19:50. It is native to central and eastern North America where it is typically found on dry upland sites often in rocky, alkaline soils. Chinkapin is not used extensively as an ornamental tree, although it is quite tolerant tougher sites. Chinkapin Oak Leaves - Photo by Paul Wray, Iowa State University. Q. prinoides was named and described by the German botanist Karl (Carl) Ludwig Willdenow in 1801, in a German journal article by Muhlenberg. These oaks are relatively slow-growing as younger plants, but they become massive with age. Chinkapin oak is generally found on soils that are weakly acid (pH about 6.5) to alkaline (above pH 7.0). These are bare root seedlings. It is absent or rare at high elevations in the Appalachians. Varies with species. Chinkapin oak is monoecious in flowering habit; flowers emerge in April to late May or early June. Unlike most white oaks, chinkapin oak is tolerant of alkaline soil. Chinkapin oak is native to the Midwest, where it is often found as a specimen planting or as a grouping of tree for parks and large areas. The species was often called Quercus acuminata in older literature. Strong tree, good for wildlife food and windbreaks. Chinkapin Oak Quercus muehlenbergii Description & Overview. It develops as a tree with an open, rounded crown, attaining heights of 40 to 50 feet. The wood of chinkapin oak is hard, heavy, strong, durable and shock resistant. ), larvae of moths (Valentinia glandulella and Melissopus latiferreanus), and gall forming cynipids (Callirhytis spp.) Like all oaks, it does have a cluster of buds at the end of branches. ), and sumacs (Rhus spp.). Dwarf Chinkapin Oak - this is a much smaller species that often doesn't get much bigger than a shrub. Photo courtesy of Texas Tree Trails. Adaptable to adverse soil conditions. The tree's scientific name honors Gotthilf Heinrich Ernst Muhlenberg (1753–1815), a Lutheran pastor and amateur botanist in Pennsylvania. This oak tree has branches that emerge from the trunk reasonably close to the ground. Distinguishing characteristics: Distinguished from other oaks by leaves with sharp teeth but lacking sinuses. The issue is even more confusing where the two species are growing together because they hybridize easily, resulting is stands of shrubby oaks with some of the characteristics of both species. Keep your eyes peeled for grouse, turkey, quail and small creatures like chipmunks and squirrels. Commonly fount in the east and southwest Iowa. In summer, excellent foliage is appreciated for its shade. In the White Oak Group and the bark is very similar to many of its relatives in the group, (off white with vertical strands or strips). Height: 45’ Spread: 45’ Site characteristics: Sandy to clay to rocky soils; full to partial sun Zone: 5a - 8b Wet/dry: Tolerates moderate drought Native range: Eastern United States pH: 5.0 - 8.2 Other: Extremely tolerant of alkaline soil Shape: Rounded and open Much like the White Oak, the bark has shallow grooves, an ash-like look and peels off as the tree matures making it a striking specimen both in landscape and in the wild. [citation needed], The most serious defoliating insects that attack chinkapin oak are the gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar), the orangestriped oakworm (Anisota senatoria), and the variable oakleaf caterpillar (Heterocampa manteo). Chinkapin oak is notable for its shaggy bark, and its shiny, green leaves with shallow teeth that turn upwards at the tip and have a tiny projection (papilla) at each tip. Most oaks were used medicinally by Native Americans because of the astringent properties of the bark. The leaves are thick, firm, light yellow green above and lighter green to silvery white below. Dwarf Chinkapin Oak - this is a much smaller species that often doesn't get much bigger than a shrub. The chinkapin oak also has smaller acorns than the chestnut oak or another similar species, the swamp chestnut oak (Q. michauxii), which have some of the largest acorns of any oaks. acuminata, with the dwarf chinkapin oak being Quercus prinoides var. [5] In Canada it is only found in southern Ontario, and in Mexico it ranges from Coahuila south to Hidalgo. Dwarf Chinkapin Oak Bark - Photo by Chris Evans, River to River CWMA, Bugwood.org . Noteworthy Characteristics. Chinkapin Oak Tree - Photo by Paul Wray, Iowa State University, Hardiness: Varies with the species of oak tree ranging from zone 3 to zone 9. Introduction: Chinkapin oak is a member of the white oak group with chestnut-type leaves. Blooming occurs May; fruiting occurs late May through September. The fruit, an acorn or nut, is borne singly or in pairs, matures in 1 year, and ripens in September or October. [9], The chinquapin oak is especially known for its sweet and palatable acorns. With its chestnut-like leaves and bright fall color, Chinkapin Oak is sure to make a statement in any landscape. However, many oak-hickory stands on moist sites that contain chinkapin oak are succeeded by a climax forest including beech, maple, and ash. This oak tree has branches that emerge from the trunk reasonably close to the ground. Site Requirements: Best growth in moist, well-drained soils. Small chinkapin oaks can be confused with dwarf chinkapin oak (Quercus prinoides); dwarf chinkapin oak has smaller leaves with 3 to 7 pairs of veins and teeth and shorter petioles. All rights reserved. It is native over all of Iowa except for the northwest one-quarter of the state. The most common woody vines are wild grape (Vitis spp.) It withstands moderate shading when young but becomes more intolerant of shade with age. Chinkapin oak (Quercus muehlenbergii) is a native oak which is often not recognized as an oak when first encountered. Seed Stratification: No stratification period is needed. Chinkapin oak is notable for its shaggy bark, and its shiny, green leaves with shallow teeth that turn upwards at the tip and have a tiny projection (papilla) at each tip. Sawtooth oak acorns have large, shaggy caps unlike those of chinkapin oak. [6] If the two are considered to be conspecific, the earlier-published name Quercus prinoides has priority over Q. muehlenbergii, and the larger chinkapin oak can then be classified as Quercus prinoides var. The leaves emerge a pink-red in spring, turning a dark green above and paler beneath in summer. [2], Chinkapin oak is closely related to the smaller but generally similar dwarf chinkapin oak (Quercus prinoides). Sawtooth oak acorns have large, shaggy caps unlike those of chinkapin oak. prinoides. Swamp chestnut oak (Quercus michauxii) occurs in southeast Texas and has larger leaves with rounded teeth. Its whitish bark and branch structure create a beautiful silhouette in winter. This species can be identified year-round. The staminate flowers are borne in catkins that develop from the leaf axils of the previous year, and the pistillate flowers develop from the axils of the current year's leaves. Chinkapin oak is normally a tree, but on very dry and/or on soils with low fertility, it will become shrubby. It is often found as a component of the climax vegetation in stands on mesic sites with limestone soils. The Chinquapin Oak Tree is a medium sized tree in the white oak group, and the bark is gray-brown and scaly and quite distinct in the landscape. Capable of growing upwards of 100 feet. good looking shade tree", Southern Research Station (www.srs.fs.fed.us), https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Quercus_muehlenbergii&oldid=955613117, Pages using Tropicos template without author names, Articles with unsourced statements from November 2019, Articles with unsourced statements from October 2011, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Acorns with no stalks or with short stalks less than 8 mm long.